Ethnobotany

With the support of the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), research is carried out to rescue knowledge about the use of plants, revaluing the biocultural heritage of the region.

Agaves, Izotes and Teaspoons

  • The magueyes are plants with which beverages, fibers and construction materials are made, among other products.
  • Guanajuato has 12 species of magueyes, which are exhibited in the Botanical Garden.
  • Unlike other succulent plants, both the magueyes and the genera yucca Y dasylirion They are characterized by their structure in rosettes.
  • Of the 40 species of agaves recorded on the continent, 30 are native to Mexico.

Nopales and Xoconostle

  • Guanajuato has an ancestral cultural heritage in the use of this resource.
  • The prickly pear (fruit) and the pencas (cladode) are the main food source in semi-arid zones.
  • They are also used for fodder, dyeing (cochineal), medicinal, ornamental and food (beverages).

Plants for Traditional Use

  • In Guanajuato, nearly 500 species used by native peoples since ancient times have been recorded.
  • They are medicinal, food, honey, forage, fuel, timber, ornamental, ceremonial, dye plants, in addition to providing fibers and material for construction and handicrafts.
  • Plants represent a biocultural and economic value for the subsistence of rural communities.

Healing plants

  • In Guanajuato, there are countless medicinal plants for traditional use, a product of the hybridization of pre-Columbian herbalism and that introduced from Europe and other parts of the world.
  • The parts of the plants are used to treat multiple diseases, some are ingested directly or prepared in infusions, ointments or other presentations.

Useful plants of the north and northwest of Guanajuato

Jarritas


 

Applications: Medicinal, ritual

Family Gender Species
Acanthaceae Justice spigera
Ruellia nudiflora
Amaranthaceae alternanthera  caracasana
Amaranthus hybridus
dysphania ambrosioides
dysphania  graveolens
Gomphrena serrated
Anacampserotaceae Talinopsis frutescens
Anacardiaceae rhus pachyrrhachis
Apiaceae eryngium heterophyllum
Apocynaceae milkweed curassavic
milkweed linaria
jingle bell thevetioides
plumeria rubra
Asparagaceae Agave gentryi
Agave lettuce
Agave tequilana
Agave  americana
Agave  americana var. variegate
Agave  flattened
Agave  difformis
Agave  filifera
Agave  salmiana
dasylirion acrotrichum
Mile biflora
yucca filifera
yucca guatemalensis
Asteraceae artemisia ludoviciana
Baccharis conference
Baccharis salicifolia
barkleyanthus salicifolius
Biden's hairy
Brickellia scoparia
Brickellia veronicifolia
Brickellia cavanillesii 
chrysactinia mexican
Cosmos bipinnatus
Dahlia coccinea
gymnosperm glutinosum
Helenium mexicanum
Heliopsis longipes
heterotheca inuloids
Parthenium bipinnatifidum
piqueria trinervia
Porophyllum linaria
Porophyllum ruderale
Pseudognaphalium oxyphyllum
Sanvitalia procumbens
Tagetes erect
Tagetes filifolia
Tagetes lucid
Tagetes lunulate
Thymophylla setifolia
Tithonia tubaeformis
Zaluzania august
Zinnia Peruvian
basellaceae Anredera cordifolia
Bignoniaceae Tecoma stans
Brassicaceae lepidium virginicum
bromeliaceae Hechtia glomerate
tillandsia recurvate
tillandsia usneoides
Burseraceae Bursera copallifera
Bursera phagaroids
Bursera bipinnata
Bursera palmeri
cacti Coryphantha erect
Cylindropuntia imbricated
Echinocereus pentalophus
Ferocactus histrix
Ferocactus latispinus
Lophocereus marginatus
Mammillaria magnimamma
myrtillocactus geometrizans
Nyctocereus serpentinus
opuntia carnillifera
opuntia leave
opuntia engelmannii
opuntia Karwinskian
opuntia robust
opuntia auberi
opuntia elizondoana
opuntia ficus-indica
opuntia joconostle
opuntia lasiacantha
opuntia leukotricha
opuntia microdasys
opuntia stenopetala
opuntia streptacantha
opuntia tomentosa
opuntia undulata
Stenocereus griseus
Stenocereus dumortieri
Stenocereus queretaroensis
Campanulaceae Lobelia laxiflora
cannabaceae Celtis pale
Canna indicates
Cleomaceae Polanisia uniglandulosa
Commelinaceae Commelina erect
tradescantia crassifolia
tradescantia chairmountain
tradescantia zebrina var. zebrina
Convolvulaceae dichondra silver
Ipomoea cairica
Ipomoea stans
Ipomoea longifolia
Ipomoea murucoides
Crassulaceae sedum dendroideum
sedum muscoideum
sedum pachyphyllum
sedum palmeri
Cucurbitaceae Apodanthera undulata
Cucurbita foetidissima
Cucurbita pepo
Sechium edule
Cupressaceae Cupressus lusitanica
taxodium mucronatum
Ebenaceae Diospyros black
Equisetaceae equisetum hyemale
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha monostachya
Argythamnia dyeing
cnidoscolus aconitifolius
Euphorbia heterophylla
Euphorbia pulcherrima
jatropha dioecious
tragedy nepetifolia
Fabaceae acaciella anguished
bronchitis intermediate
Give to bicolor
Give to leafy
erythrina americana
eysenhardtia polystachya
Leucaena leucocephala
Phaseolus vulgaris
Pithecellobium sweet
Prosopis laevigata
Senna septemtrialis
Vachellia farnesian
Vachellia pennatula
Vachellia schaffneri
Zornia   thymifolia
Fagaceae Quercus castanea
Quercus rough
Quercus sp.
Fouquieriaceae Fouquieria splendens
iridaceae tiger pavonia
Juglandaceae Carya illinoinensis
Lamiaceae Agastache mexican
clinopodium mexicanum
hyptis albid
Sage microphylla
Lauraceae Persea americana
Loasaceae Mentzelia hispid
Lythraceae Cuphea aequipetala
Heimia salicifolia
Malpighiaceae Galphimia glaucous
Malvaceae kapok aesculifolia
Mallow parviflora
Pavonia candidate
AIDS rhombifolia
Sphaeralcea angustifolia
Martyniaceae proboscidea louisiana
Moraceae morus celtidifolia
Myrtaceae psydium guava
Nyctaginaceae mirabilis jalapa
oleaceae Forestiera phillyreoides
Fraxinus uhdei
Onagraceae Oenothera rosea
Orchidaceae Laelia speciosa
Oxalidaceae Oxalis broadleaf
Papaveraceae argemone ochroleuca
Passifloraceae turnera diffuse
Petiveriaceae Rivine humilis
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca icosandra
Pinaceae Abies religious
pine cembroids
pine sp.
Piperaceae Peperomia macrostachyos
Platanaceae Platanus mexican
Poaceae Muhlenbergia quadridentata
Zea mays
Polemoniaceae Loeselia mexican
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea
pteridaceae Astrolepis sinuous
Rhamnaceae Condalia velutine
Karwinskia humboldtian
Rosaceae Malacomeles denticulata
prunus serotonin
Purshia mexican
Rubiaceae Bouvardia ternifolia
Rutaceae Casimir edulis
Ptelea trifoliate
Salicaceae Populus fremontii
Salix humboldtian
Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscose
cardiospermum halicacabum
Scrophulariaceae Buddleja scordioides
Buddleja cordata
Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla
solanaceae capsicum annum var. glabriusculum
Datura ceratocaula
Datura stromium
solanum nigrescens
solanum rostratum
solanum elaeagnifolium
Typhaceae Typha broadleaf
Ericaceae Arctostaphylos pungens
Verbenaceae Aloysia citrodora
Aloysia very free
glandular elegant
lantana camera
lippia umbellate
lippia origanoids

Useful plants of the north and northwest of Guanajuato

Jarritas


 

Applications: Medicinal, ritual

Family: Acanthaceae
Gender: Justice
Species: spigera
Family:
Gender: Ruellia
Species: nudiflora
Family: Amaranthaceae
Gender: alternanthera 
Species: caracasana
Family:
Gender: Amaranthus
Species: hybridus
Family:
Gender: dysphania
Species: ambrosioides
Family:
Gender: dysphania 
Species: graveolens
Family:
Gender: Gomphrena
Species: serrated
Family: Anacampserotaceae
Gender: Talinopsis
Species: frutescens
Family: Anacardiaceae
Gender: rhus
Species: pachyrrhachis
Family: Apiaceae
Gender: eryngium
Species: heterophyllum
Family: Apocynaceae
Gender: milkweed
Species: curassavic
Family:
Gender: milkweed
Species: linaria
Family:
Gender: jingle bell
Species: thevetioides
Family:
Gender: plumeria
Species: rubra
Family: Asparagaceae
Gender: Agave
Species: gentryi
Family:
Gender: Agave
Species: lettuce
Family:
Gender: Agave
Species: tequilana
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: americana
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: americana var. variegate
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: flattened
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: difformis
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: filifera
Family:
Gender: Agave 
Species: salmiana
Family:
Gender: dasylirion
Species: acrotrichum
Family:
Gender: Mile
Species: biflora
Family:
Gender: yucca
Species: filifera
Family:
Gender: yucca
Species: guatemalensis
Family: Asteraceae
Gender: artemisia
Species: ludoviciana
Family:
Gender: Baccharis
Species: conference
Family:
Gender: Baccharis
Species: salicifolia
Family:
Gender: barkleyanthus
Species: salicifolius
Family:
Gender: Biden's
Species: hairy
Family:
Gender: Brickellia
Species: scoparia
Family:
Gender: Brickellia
Species: veronicifolia
Family:
Gender: Brickellia
Species: cavanillesii 
Family:
Gender: chrysactinia
Species: mexican
Family:
Gender: Cosmos
Species: bipinnatus
Family:
Gender: Dahlia
Species: coccinea
Family:
Gender: gymnosperm
Species: glutinosum
Family:
Gender: Helenium
Species: mexicanum
Family:
Gender: Heliopsis
Species: longipes
Family:
Gender: heterotheca
Species: inuloids
Family:
Gender: Parthenium
Species: bipinnatifidum
Family:
Gender: piqueria
Species: trinervia
Family:
Gender: Porophyllum
Species: linaria
Family:
Gender: Porophyllum
Species: ruderale
Family:
Gender: Pseudognaphalium
Species: oxyphyllum
Family:
Gender: Sanvitalia
Species: procumbens
Family:
Gender: Tagetes
Species: erect
Family:
Gender: Tagetes
Species: filifolia
Family:
Gender: Tagetes
Species: lucid
Family:
Gender: Tagetes
Species: lunulate
Family:
Gender: Thymophylla
Species: setifolia
Family:
Gender: Tithonia
Species: tubaeformis
Family:
Gender: Zaluzania
Species: august
Family:
Gender: Zinnia
Species: Peruvian
Family: basellaceae
Gender: Anredera
Species: cordifolia
Family: Bignoniaceae
Gender: Tecoma
Species: stans
Family: Brassicaceae
Gender: lepidium
Species: virginicum
Family: bromeliaceae
Gender: Hechtia
Species: glomerate
Family:
Gender: tillandsia
Species: recurvate
Family:
Gender: tillandsia
Species: usneoides
Family: Burseraceae
Gender: Bursera
Species: copallifera
Family:
Gender: Bursera
Species: phagaroids
Family:
Gender: Bursera
Species: bipinnata
Family:
Gender: Bursera
Species: palmeri
Family: cacti
Gender: Coryphantha
Species: erect
Family:
Gender: Cylindropuntia
Species: imbricated
Family:
Gender: Echinocereus
Species: pentalophus
Family:
Gender: Ferocactus
Species: histrix
Family:
Gender: Ferocactus
Species: latispinus
Family:
Gender: Lophocereus
Species: marginatus
Family:
Gender: Mammillaria
Species: magnimamma
Family:
Gender: myrtillocactus
Species: geometrizans
Family:
Gender: Nyctocereus
Species: serpentinus
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: carnillifera
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: leave
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: engelmannii
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: Karwinskian
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: robust
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: auberi
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: elizondoana
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: ficus-indica
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: joconostle
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: lasiacantha
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: leukotricha
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: microdasys
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: stenopetala
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: streptacantha
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: tomentosa
Family:
Gender: opuntia
Species: undulata
Family:
Gender: Stenocereus
Species: griseus
Family:
Gender: Stenocereus
Species: dumortieri
Family:
Gender: Stenocereus
Species: queretaroensis
Family: Campanulaceae
Gender: Lobelia
Species: laxiflora
Family: cannabaceae
Gender: Celtis
Species: pale
Family:
Gender: Canna
Species: indicates
Family: Cleomaceae
Gender: Polanisia
Species: uniglandulosa
Family: Commelinaceae
Gender: Commelina
Species: erect
Family:
Gender: tradescantia
Species: crassifolia
Family:
Gender: tradescantia
Species: chairmountain
Family:
Gender: tradescantia
Species: zebrina var. zebrina
Family: Convolvulaceae
Gender: dichondra
Species: silver
Family:
Gender: Ipomoea
Species: cairica
Family:
Gender: Ipomoea
Species: stans
Family:
Gender: Ipomoea
Species: longifolia
Family:
Gender: Ipomoea
Species: murucoides
Family: Crassulaceae
Gender: sedum
Species: dendroideum
Family:
Gender: sedum
Species: muscoideum
Family:
Gender: sedum
Species: pachyphyllum
Family:
Gender: sedum
Species: palmeri
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Gender: Apodanthera
Species: undulata
Family:
Gender: Cucurbita
Species: foetidissima
Family:
Gender: Cucurbita
Species: pepo
Family:
Gender: Sechium
Species: edule
Family: Cupressaceae
Gender: Cupressus
Species: lusitanica
Family:
Gender: taxodium
Species: mucronatum
Family: Ebenaceae
Gender: Diospyros
Species: black
Family: Equisetaceae
Gender: equisetum
Species: hyemale
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Gender: Acalypha
Species: monostachya
Family:
Gender: Argythamnia
Species: dyeing
Family:
Gender: cnidoscolus
Species: aconitifolius
Family:
Gender: Euphorbia
Species: heterophylla
Family:
Gender: Euphorbia
Species: pulcherrima
Family:
Gender: jatropha
Species: dioecious
Family:
Gender: tragedy
Species: nepetifolia
Family: Fabaceae
Gender: acaciella
Species: anguished
Family:
Gender: bronchitis
Species: intermediate
Family:
Gender: Give to
Species: bicolor
Family:
Gender: Give to
Species: leafy
Family:
Gender: erythrina
Species: americana
Family:
Gender: eysenhardtia
Species: polystachya
Family:
Gender: Leucaena
Species: leucocephala
Family:
Gender: Phaseolus
Species: vulgaris
Family:
Gender: Pithecellobium
Species: sweet
Family:
Gender: Prosopis
Species: laevigata
Family:
Gender: Senna
Species: septemtrialis
Family:
Gender: Vachellia
Species: farnesian
Family:
Gender: Vachellia
Species: pennatula
Family:
Gender: Vachellia
Species: schaffneri
Family:
Gender: Zornia  
Species: thymifolia
Family: Fagaceae
Gender: Quercus
Species: castanea
Family:
Gender: Quercus
Species: rough
Family:
Gender: Quercus
Species: sp.
Family: Fouquieriaceae
Gender: Fouquieria
Species: splendens
Family: iridaceae
Gender: tiger
Species: pavonia
Family: Juglandaceae
Gender: Carya
Species: illinoinensis
Family: Lamiaceae
Gender: Agastache
Species: mexican
Family:
Gender: clinopodium
Species: mexicanum
Family:
Gender: hyptis
Species: albid
Family:
Gender: Sage
Species: microphylla
Family: Lauraceae
Gender: Persea
Species: americana
Family: Loasaceae
Gender: Mentzelia
Species: hispid
Family: Lythraceae
Gender: Cuphea
Species: aequipetala
Family:
Gender: Heimia
Species: salicifolia
Family: Malpighiaceae
Gender: Galphimia
Species: glaucous
Family: Malvaceae
Gender: kapok
Species: aesculifolia
Family:
Gender: Mallow
Species: parviflora
Family:
Gender: Pavonia
Species: candidate
Family:
Gender: AIDS
Species: rhombifolia
Family:
Gender: Sphaeralcea
Species: angustifolia
Family: Martyniaceae
Gender: proboscidea
Species: louisiana
Family: Moraceae
Gender: morus
Species: celtidifolia
Family: Myrtaceae
Gender: psydium
Species: guava
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Gender: mirabilis
Species: jalapa
Family: oleaceae
Gender: Forestiera
Species: phillyreoides
Family:
Gender: Fraxinus
Species: uhdei
Family: Onagraceae
Gender: Oenothera
Species: rosea
Family: Orchidaceae
Gender: Laelia
Species: speciosa
Family: Oxalidaceae
Gender: Oxalis
Species: broadleaf
Family: Papaveraceae
Gender: argemone
Species: ochroleuca
Family: Passifloraceae
Gender: turnera
Species: diffuse
Family: Petiveriaceae
Gender: Rivine
Species: humilis
Family: Phytolaccaceae
Gender: Phytolacca
Species: icosandra
Family: Pinaceae
Gender: Abies
Species: religious
Family:
Gender: pine
Species: cembroids
Family:
Gender: pine
Species: sp.
Family: Piperaceae
Gender: Peperomia
Species: macrostachyos
Family: Platanaceae
Gender: Platanus
Species: mexican
Family: Poaceae
Gender: Muhlenbergia
Species: quadridentata
Family:
Gender: Zea
Species: mays
Family: Polemoniaceae
Gender: Loeselia
Species: mexican
Family: Portulacaceae
Gender: Portulaca
Species: oleracea
Family: pteridaceae
Gender: Astrolepis
Species: sinuous
Family: Rhamnaceae
Gender: Condalia
Species: velutine
Family:
Gender: Karwinskia
Species: humboldtian
Family: Rosaceae
Gender: Malacomeles
Species: denticulata
Family:
Gender: prunus
Species: serotonin
Family:
Gender: Purshia
Species: mexican
Family: Rubiaceae
Gender: Bouvardia
Species: ternifolia
Family: Rutaceae
Gender: Casimir
Species: edulis
Family:
Gender: Ptelea
Species: trifoliate
Family: Salicaceae
Gender: Populus
Species: fremontii
Family:
Gender: Salix
Species: humboldtian
Family: Sapindaceae
Gender: Dodonaea
Species: viscose
Family:
Gender: cardiospermum
Species: halicacabum
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Gender: Buddleja
Species: scordioides
Family:
Gender: Buddleja
Species: cordata
Family: Selaginellaceae
Gender: Selaginella
Species: lepidophylla
Family: solanaceae
Gender: capsicum
Species: annum var. glabriusculum
Family:
Gender: Datura
Species: ceratocaula
Family:
Gender: Datura
Species: stromium
Family:
Gender: solanum
Species: nigrescens
Family:
Gender: solanum
Species: rostratum
Family:
Gender: solanum
Species: elaeagnifolium
Family: Typhaceae
Gender: Typha
Species: broadleaf
Family: Ericaceae
Gender: Arctostaphylos
Species: pungens
Family: Verbenaceae
Gender: Aloysia
Species: citrodora
Family:
Gender: Aloysia
Species: very free
Family:
Gender: glandular
Species: elegant
Family:
Gender: lantana
Species: camera
Family:
Gender: lippia
Species: umbellate
Family:
Gender: lippia
Species: origanoids